In this next part of our Art History series, we turn to Surrealism, a 20th-century cultural movement where artists created moving alternate realities.
Art History: Surrealism
The Surrealist Era
It all began with a manifesto. Gathered in the cafes of Paris, surrealists discussed the meaning of life, along with many foundational art-making techniques.
Obsessed, or just passionate, these artists shaped vivid worlds with photographic precision. Their subjects, composition, and colors were often a reflection of the things, people, and ideas that meant most to them.
So how do surrealists interpret life differently?
While it took on many forms, surrealism as a visual art form was hugely influential. It drew on collaborative philosophies that wanted to free people from false rationality and restrictive structures.
Hoping to revolutionize the human experience, Surrealists were often theatrical and dramatic. They incorporated creativity into their daily lives far beyond a canvas or paintbrush, and inspired others to discover new ways to bring art into their lives.
Let’s take a look at the surrealist work from these incredible artists.
For Spanish artist Salvador Dalí, creative expression was simply a lifestyle. From the clothes he wore to his iconic mustache, Dalí had an all-around grandiose personality.
At an early age he was encouraged to create art, but it wasn’t until he fell in love with Gala, friend and later wife, that he truly began to hone his craft.
His philosophies, though often described as daring yet manic, formed the evolution of his work. He believed in the idea of irrational knowledge and other theories which allowed him to tap into his subconscious in order to create phenomenal 2D pieces.
German artist Max Ernst loved to explore his creativity. His paintings, illustrations, and sculptures depicted surreal scenes of turbulent relationships, the mental health condition, and modern culture.
He also developed many art techniques, include frottage, a method of rubbing pastel against a surface to produce a texture or pattern.
Her paintings were a window to her pain. With over 140 pieces created over her lifetime, Frida Kahlo remains one of the biggest surrealist influences on modern art.
Artists know the power of creation, and Frida Kahlo was no different. The therapeutic qualities of creation effectively mix elements of stillness and creativity together to give artists a much-needed release from the world’s problems. For Frida, this cathartic release was very necessary.
Battling polio at an early age as well as a devastating trolley accident, Kahlo encountered numerous tragedies throughout her lifetime. Her personal work became an autobiography of her life, depicting colorful scenes of Mexican culture, as well as inner pain and conflict.
Among her famous paintings is a divine collection of self-portraits. In The Two Fridas, she shows us this inner turmoil by painting two opposing self-portraits in traditional and modern Mexican-influenced attire. Devastated by her divorce, she effectively illustrates her pain to the viewer.
Life is what you make it. At least, that’s how surrealists saw the world. Their wide range of culture and influence is a true testament to the evolution of art. And I hope you continue to learn more about these amazing timelines on your own.
For more stories about the Surrealist era, dive into the links below for further reading. And join me next month when we discuss Pop and Abstract art.
- Surrealism (Basic Art Series)
- Surrealism (Movements in Modern Art)
- Surrealism: The Visual Encyclopedia of Art
The following sources were also included in this article: